What is HLR?
Home Location Register (HLR) is the centralized subscriber database for the mobile carriers, which include details of subscribers authorized to use the global mobile communication system (GSM) within the mobile operators realm. This database contains phone number information, authentication information, and data such as phone settings and the subscriber's current location. It is based on SS7 MAP protocol.
What is HSS?
Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is the evolution of the HLR for the 4G networks. Similar to the HLR, the main function of the HSS is to communicate with the network and provide subscriber profile and authentication information. The HSS stores information about subscribers to assist in authorization, device details, as well as user location and service information. It is based on Diameter protocol.
What is VLR?
The Visitor Location Register (VLR) has information about roaming mobile stations in one or more MSC areas. A VLR contains information on all active subscribers in that area, including your home network. Generally, most of the registry entries are not visitors, but users on your own home network.
What is Private LTE Networks?
A private LTE networks could be a local cellular network that has cell sites and core network servers dedicated to supporting the connectivity of a particular organization’s requirements, independent of the cellular networks of service providers. Private LTE networks are important for organizations that use multiple devices and applications. Combined with 4G and 5G technology, they supply a stability of service that outstrips wireless connectivity. Dedicated to and managed by the organization itself, they're designed for high-speed mobility and secure mobile roaming within an organization’s business premises and land.
What is VoLTE?
Voice Over Long Term Evolution (VolTE). This technology helps users to simultaneously send voice and data over the network without losing voice quality. The voice quality is high and the user can keep the data connection on while making a voice call. Other advantage is it allows connecting calls faster.
What is Roaming controls?
Roaming allows a subscriber on one mobile network to access services in another region from a different service provider or operator. The most common example is accessing the services of a provider in another country outside the subscriber's home country.
What is MNO?
A mobile network operator (MNO) is a provider of wireless communications services that has or manages the infrastructure necessary to be able to sell and provide services to end users (subscribers), including the allocation of radio spectrum, the infrastructure of the wireless network. , transportation infrastructure, billing, customer service and provisioning of computer systems, repairs, etc.
What is MVNO?
A mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) is a provider of wireless communications services that does not have the wireless network infrastructure through which it provides services to its customers. An MVNO needs a mobile network operator to gain massive access to network services at wholesale prices, then they can independently set retail prices as well as use their own customer service, billing support systems, marketing and sales staff, or you could use the services of a mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE).
What is MVNE?
A mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE) is a company that supplies the necessary network infrastructure, as well as services, business support, administration, operations support to a mobile virtual network operator (MVNO). MVNE allows MVNO's to offer services to their own clients with their own brands. MVNE does not manage a relationship with consumers, it is a provider of network enablement platforms and services. The MVNE's carry out the planning, implementation and management of mobile services. For example, SIM provisioning and configuration, customer billing, customer relationship management, and value-added service platforms.
What is MVNA?
Mobile Virtual Network Aggregator (MVNA): An MVNA can incorporate many small MVNO's and using the collective power, it can connect to the operator as a single MVNO. The MVNA usually do not have direct subscribers, but if other smaller MVNO that connect to it. In general, you would need to have your own OSS / BSS in order to provide accurate billing information to OMV's.
What is VoWIFI?
Voice over Wifi (VoWifi): Along with IMS technology, it provides a voice packet service over IP in a WiFi network. So it is not necessary to have a mobile signal to make and receive calls. Another advantage is that it enables existing SIM-based security and authentication for VoLTE.
What is VoIP?
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP): It is defined as a set of standards for the transmission of multimedia data and voice content using the Internet Protocol (IP). In other words, the voice signal is sent in the form of digital data packets and not in analog form. The use of (VoIP) allows to have low costs, greater functionality, integration with other applications, but it will depend on the bandwidth available on the network.